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Of the 107 tractors 63 reached the end of the project period without any or with minimal failures (repair costs under 1,000 Euro), while serious and thus costintensive failures occurred in 44 tractors. Limits of use Rape oil is, on account of its high density and viscosity together with its high volatility, as a rule not suitable for use in diesel engines. The direct use of pure rape oil and other vegetable oils in engines is limited by an insufficient fuel deliverability at low temperatures, by the formation of residues by thermal coking on the injector nozzle on account of a lack of vaporability due to insufficient spray preparation in the combustion chamber, and by the associated noncompliance with the Euro 4 or Euro 5 emission limits.
Unit injector systems). For this reason, mineral-oil diesel may not be applied at the maximum permitted primary pressure. High viscosity also changes the spray pattern due to the formation of larger droplets. Lubricity In order to reduce the sulfur content of diesel fuel, it is hydrogenated. In addition to removing sulfur, the hydrogenation process also removes the ionic fuel components that aid lubrication. After the introduction of desulfurized diesel fuels, wear-related problems started to occur on distributor fuel-injection pumps due to the lack of lubricity.
In this case, if diesel fuel already contains a proportion of biodiesel, no further lubricity enhancers are added. Cetane improvers Cetane improvers are nitric acid esters of alcohols added to shorten ignition lag. They reduce emissions and noise (combustion noise). 2 Diesel fuel 39 Flow improvers Flow improvers consist of polymer substances that lower the filtration limit. They are added in winter to ensure troublefree operation at low temperatures. Although flow improvers cannot prevent the precipitation of paraffin crystals from diesel fuel, it can severely limit their growth.