By Maximino Manzanera
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Extra info for Alternative Fuel
Besides free fatty acids, this starting material contains other degradation products as polymers, as revised by Kulkarni & Dalai (2006). These compounds can affect the catalyst activity, but they can be removed by means of simple filtration. Waste oils have higher amounts of saturated fatty acids, leading to less favourable cold flow properties (Knothe & Dunn, 2005). Charoenchaitrakool & Thienmethangkoon (2011) investigated the optimum conditions in biodiesel production from waste frying oil using two-step catalyzed process (acid catalysis followed by alkali-catalysis).
4bar), respectively. From Oliveira et al. (2006). 38 Alternative Fuel Lanza et al.
Typical fatty acid composition (wt%) found in vegetable and animal oils and fats that may be used for biodiesel production. Knothe & Dunn (2005) outlined biodiesel is susceptible to start-up and operability problems when subjected to cold temperatures. Biodiesel made from feedstock containing larger amounts of high-melting point long-chain saturated fatty acids tends to have relatively poor cold flow properties. This drawback can be overcome by the transesterification of triacylglycerols with medium chain-length (C3-C8) or branched-chain alkyl alcohols.